Kidney disease: its symptoms, causes, and how to prevent or treat it

 The human body contains two fist-sized kidneys, located in the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney, there are about a million very small structures called nephrons (kidneys), which filter the blood and remove toxins and excess water in the form of urine. Urine flows through a tube called the ureter to the bladder, which stores urine until the person is ready to urinate. Healthy kidneys produce hormones that keep bones strong and blood healthy.

Kidney disease

Kidney disease

There are many different causes of kidney tissue damage, and this damage can prevent the kidneys from removing toxins and excess fluid from the body.

Types of kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease:

A long-term condition in which the kidneys stop working properly and the kidney tissue gradually becomes damaged over several years.

Acute kidney failure:

Rapid kidney dysfunction results in an inability to filter toxins from the blood, which develops rapidly over hours or days as toxins accumulate in high concentrations, causing an imbalance in the blood components.

Kidney disease can be:

Cancer, cysts, stones, and infections.

the reasons

  • Genetic causes.
  • diabetic.
  • Hypertension.
  • Immune-mediated renal infections.
  • Kidney cyst.
  • Prolonged use of medications harmful to the kidneys.
  • Acute kidney failure can occur for several reasons.
  • A condition in which blood flow to the kidneys is reduced. It directly harms the functioning of the kidneys.
  • Blockage of the ureters due to kidney stones or an enlarged prostate gland, which prevents the elimination of toxins from the body.

Risk factors

  • Aging.
  • Smoking.
  • Obesity.
  • Family history of kidney disease.
  • Severe cases that require hospitalization, especially intensive care.
  • diabetic. 
  • Hypertension.
  • Heart failure.
  • Liver diseases.


Kidney patients usually do not have symptoms until the advanced stages, but symptoms may include the following:

Constant fatigue. Normal kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin (which forms red blood cells), but when the kidneys are damaged, blood formation is affected, causing anemia, fatigue, and colds.

Shortness of breath even with light exercise: due to fluid in the lungs or anemia.

Weakness and dizziness.

Mild dizziness.

Severe itching.

Swelling of the extremities or face: due to fluid remaining in the blood that the kidneys should excrete.

A strange metallic taste in the mouth: due to the accumulation of toxic substances in the blood.

Bad breath.

Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Foam in the urine: due to the presence of protein in the urine.

Dark urine or blood in the urine.

Back pain is not a sign of kidney disease, as the kidneys are located above the waist and in the back of the body.

When do you visit the doctor?

If you have a disease that increases your risk of kidney disease, your doctor will check your blood pressure and kidney function with urine and blood tests during regular checkups.


  • Fluid accumulation in the body: In the case of acute kidney failure, water may accumulate in the lungs, causing shortness of breath.
  • pain in the chest.
  • Weak bones, which increase the risk of fractures.
  • Anemia.
  • Impotence.
  • Damage to the central nervous system.
  • Increased chance of infection due to decreased immunity.
  • Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium): Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart.
  • Pregnancy complications pose a risk to the pregnant woman and the fetus.
  • Death.


Laboratory tests: blood and urine analysis.



Healthy lifestyle change.

Adherence to medications to control comorbidities (eg, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol).

If chronic kidney disease develops, the following treatments may be required


Kidney transplant.



Avoid excessive use of over-the-counter medications.
Managing chronic conditions (such as high blood pressure, and diabetes) that may cause kidney damage.
Doing physical activity.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Follow a healthy and balanced diet. 
Avoid smoking.

common questions

When do kidney failure patients die?

Kidney failure patients do not die of the disease.

Can chronic kidney failure be treated?

No, once kidney damage occurs, it cannot be treated.

Does dialysis cause death?

  The most common cause of sudden death in patients with end-stage.

What causes fatigue after dialysis?

Fatigue after dialysis Some patients may experience fatigue after dialysis due to the physical stress of treatment.

How can I live with chronic kidney disease?

Patients with kidney disease need to reduce salt intake, as excessive salt intake can lead to thirst and increased fluid accumulation and retention in the body, leading to high blood pressure. Finally, patients suffering from kidney failure should always be followed up by a nutritionist to monitor their weight and appetite and change their diet according to the analysis requested by the doctor.


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